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APA Style

AudioVisual Works

Film or Video

Director(s). (Director). (Year). Title of movie in italics [Film]. Production Company.


Matsoukas, M. (Director). (2019). Queen & Slim [Film]. BRON Studios. 

In-text citation: (Matsoukas, 2019)

Film or Video (in another language)

Director(s). (Year). Foreign title of movie [English title of the movie] [Film]. Production Company.


Bosch, R. (Director). (2010). La rafle [The round up] [Film]. Menemsha Films. 

In-text citation: (Bosch, 2010). 

TV Series

Name (Executive Producers). (Year-Year). Name of TV show in italics [TV series]. Production company.


Gelbart, L., Reynolds, G., & Metcalfe, B. (Executive Producers). (1972-1983). M*A*S*H [TV series]. 20th Century Fox Television. 

In-tex citation: (Gelbart et. al., 1972-1983) 

TV Episode

Name (Writer), & Name (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season #, Episode #) [TV series episode]. In Name (Executive Producer), Name of TV show. Production Company. 


Greenburg, D. Z. (Writer), & Gillum, V. (Director). (2002, November 1). Shindig (Season 1, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In J. Wheadon, & T. Minear (Executive Producers), Firefly. Mutant Enemy Production; 20th Century Fox Television. 

In-text citation: (Greenburg & Gillum, 2002).

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

Uploader. (Year, Month Day). Name of the video in italics [Video]. Site. URL


Atlas Pro. (2018, February 6). What’s the longest river on Earth? [Video]. YouTube.

In-text citation: (Atlas Pro, 2018).

TED Talk

Presenter. (Year, Month). Name of presentation in italics [Video]. TED Conferences. URL


Brown, B. (2010, June). The power of vulnerability [Video]. TED Conferences.

In-text citation: (Brown, 2010)

Webinar (Recorded)

Presenter(s). (Year, Month Day). Name of the webinar in italics [Webinar]. Source. URL


Hickey, C. (2020, May 16). Accessibility and online multimedia content [Webinar]. New York Library Association.

In-text citation: (Hickey, 2020)

Music Album

Artist. (Year). Name of the album in italics [Album]. Label. 


June, V. (2013). Pushin' against a stone [Album]. Sunday Best Records. 

In-text citation: (June, 2013)

The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

In-text citation: (Bach, 1721/2010)

  • Provide composer as the author 
  • Following the title note (in square brackets) the individual or group who recorded the version you used
  • Provide the publication date for the version you used as the date and the date of composition in parentheses at the end. 

  • Provide the name of the recording artist or group. 
  • It is not necessary to specify how you listened to the album (e.g., CD, streaming) but the format or other descriptive information may be included-- in square brackets following the word "Album." When the version you used includes special tracks or features you accessed, use a semicolon following the Album and title information to specify the version. 
  • Include a URL if that location is the only means of retrieval (such as artists who provide music in only one location).

Single Song or Track

Artist. (Year). Name of the song [Song]. On Title of the album in italics. Label. 


Bach, J. S. (2010). Concerto in A minor, BWV 1041 [Song recorded at the Eugene and Shelly Enlow Recital Hall at Kean University]. On Live Elmar Oliveira: The violin concerti of J.S. Bach. Artek. (Original work published 1717-23)

In-text citation: (Bach, 1717-23/2010)

June, V. (2010). Twined and twisted [Song]. On Pushin' against a stone. Sunday Best Records

In-text citation: (June, 2010)

Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA. 

In-text citation: (Childish Gambino, 2018)

  • Omit album information if the song has no associated album (Childish Gambino). 
  • Include a URL if that location is the only means of retrieval (such as artists who provide music in only one location). 


Name (Host). (Year-Year). Name of the podcast in italics [Audio or Video podcast]. Source. URL


Barbaro, M. (Host). (2017- present). The daily [Audio podcast]. The New York Times.

In-text caution: (Barbaro, 2017-present

Podcast Episode

Name (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of the episode (No. #) [Audio or Video podcast episode]. In Name of the podcast in italics. Source. URL

Rogan, J. (Host). (2020, May 7). Elon Musk (No. 1470) [Video podcast episode]. In The Joe Rogan Experience. Joe Rogan.

In-text citation: (Rogan, 2020)

Speech Audio Recording

Speaker. (Year, Month Day). Title of the speech in italics [Speech audio recording]. Website. URL


​Roosevelt, F. D. (1941, December 8). Pearl Harbor address to the nation [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

In-text citation: (Roosevelt, 1941)

Because of the Fair Use clause of the Copyright law, you may use photos for educational purposes. Of course, you should cite where you found the image just as you do a book, article or website. If you publish the photo so those outside the class, can see it---on a publicly accessible website---then it is no longer considered fair use and you must get permission of the photographer or find a photo that access the appropriate creative commons license. So you can give proper credit, use sites that give the information (photographer, date, title) to make a complete citation.


Photographer. (Year, Month Day). Title in italics [Photograph, if you altered this in any way mention it here]. Website. URL


Alexanderson, K. (2012, June 26).  Plagiarism [Photograph, text added]. Flickr.

In-text citation: (Alexanderson, 2012)

*For an untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of a title

Artwork (In a Museum or on a Museum Website)

Artist. (Year). Title of art work [medium---Painting, Sculpture, Photograph etc.]  Location of owner: Owning Institution (if owner by individual put Private Collection). URL


Botticelli, S. (ca. 1470). Adoration of the Magi [Tempura on panel].  Florence: Galleria degli Uffizi.

In-text citation: (Botticelli, ca. 1470)

​Note: ca. is short for circa which means approximately.  Use ca. when you don't know the exact year.

Note: If the artist is commonly known by his or her first name (such as Rembrandt or Michelangelo) use that instead of the last name and initials.

Clip Art or Stock Image

Artist. (Year). Title in italics [Clip art]. Website. URL


j4p4n. (2020). Kicked out [Clip art]. Openclipart.

In-text citation: (j4p4n, 2020)

  • No citation is necessary for clip art from Microsoft Word or PowerPoint


Creator. (Year). Title in italics [Infographic]. Website. URL


Richter, F. (2020). Toxic content runs rampant on Facebook [Infographic]. Statista.

In-text citation: (Richter, 2020)

Audiovisual Media

The author of an audiovisual work is determined by media type, as seen below:

Media type Include as the author
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode

Writer and director of episode

Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer


Stand-alone audiovisual material


Author Date Title Publisher URL

Director, D.D. (Director).

Producer, P.P. (Executive Producer).

Host, H.H. (Host). 

Artist, A.A. 

Uploader, U.U.




(2020, July 21). 

Title of work in italics [Description]

Production Company. 


Museum Name, Museum Location.

Department Name, University Name 


Audiovisual media that is part of a greater whole

Author Date Title Publisher URL

Writer, W.W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). 

Host, H.H. (Host). 

Producer, P.P. (Producer). 

Composer, C.C. 

Artist, A.A. 


(2020, May 26). 

Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [Description].

Title of song [Description]

In P.P. Producers (Executive Producer), Title of TV series.

Production Company. 

In Title of podcast. 

Production Company. 

On title of album. 



You can see more examples on the APA Style Guide