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APA Style

For an interview you conducted or personal communications

Do not cite your interview on the References page. Instead, cite the information in-text:

(Communicator, personal communication, Month Day, Year)


In speaking with Zadie Smith (personal communication, March 21, 2020) they stated…

In an email they wrote.... (Z. Smith, personal communication, May 29, 2020).


Note. An interview you conducted yourself, which is not published, is considered a personal communication. Unpublished AI (ChatGPT) is also considered a personal communication;see the ChatGPT/AI Tools page for details.  

Learn more from APA Style about how to cite personal communications

Published Interview

If you read, watch, or listening to an interview conducted by someone else, you should pick the reference format for the source- for example, in a magazine, newspaper, recorded radio broadcast, podcast episode, TV show. 

Since the name of the person interviewed may not necessarily appear in the citation, you may integrate the person's name into the narrative of your paper.


Narrative description-

Dr. Robert Watson stated, "People think we know all there is to know about history. We don't know the half of it" (Laird et al., 2019-Present).


Laird, N., Oron, D., & Ryan, N. (Executive Producers). (2019-Present). Secret Nazi ruins [TV series]. Go Button Media.