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X Post (formerly "tweet" on Twitter)

Name of Account [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Full tweet in italics [Post]. X. URL



National Hurricane Center [@NHC_Atlantic]. (2020, June 23). Tropical storm #Dolly advisory 6: Dolly beginning to move away from the gulf stream current. Forecast to become a remnant low on Wednesday. [Post]. X.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (National Hurricane Center, 2020).

The New York Times [@nytimes]. (2018, December 20). The tobacco gaint Altria has agreed to pay nearly $14 billion for a 35% stake in Juul Labs, the wildly popular vaping company. Public health advocates criticized the union [Thumbnail with link attached] [Post]. X.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (The New York Times, 2018).

SAP [@SAP]. (2020, June 29). SAP stands by our commitment to support social justice and quality. Today we join #StopHateForProfit in sending a powerful message. See how we're working to drive meaningful change: [Image attached] [Post]. X.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (SAP, 2020).

Note: If the post to X includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached]. 

Note: In the case of a group identified by an abbreviation (for example, CDC), use the group name as shown on the work, to aid in retrieval

Instagram Post

Name of Account [@instragramhandle]. (Year, Month Day). Full post in italics [Photograph or Video]. Instagram. URL



Kendi, I. X. [@ibramxk]. (2019, October 17). When giants fall, we all hear it. Congressman #ElijahCummings rest, please rest. We will continue your fight - the fight - and we will win and you will be proud [Photograph]. Instagram.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (Kendi, 2019).

NPR [@npr]. (2020, May 8). Happy Friday, ya'll. On 'It's Been a Minute," host @samsanders asks listener to share the best parts of their week - and they do. So here are highlights from couple of week's worth of "best things" to make you smile. Check out the podcast at [Video]. Instagram.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (NPR, 2020).

Note. For more examples of Instagram (photos, videos, profiles) see the Instagram References APA Style page

Note: In the case of a group identified by an abbreviation (for example, CDC), use the group name as shown on the work, to aid in retrieval

Facebook Post

Name of Account. (Year, Month Day). Full post in italics [Description of Attachment and/or Status Update] Facebook. URL



Lynn University Library. (2020, April 30). Then-Vice President George Bush was the guest at a Republican Party fundraiser on May 8, 1983, at the Lynn Student Center at The College of Boca Raton (now Lynn University). #tbt [Photograph] [Status Update]. Facebook.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (Lynn University Library, 2020).

World Health Organization. (2020, July 8). There are several ways to reduce your risk of COVID-19 [Infographic]. Facebook.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (World Health Organization, 2020).

White, B. (2018, February 14). The story of how zoos have evolved over the years to become great contributors to conservation and wildlife is so dear to my heart! Please check out‪‬ to learn about a project I’m thrilled to be a part of! [Video]. Facebook.

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (White, 2018).


Facebook Page

Name of Account. (n.d.). Page title in italics [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL



National Gallery of Art. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 7, 2020, from

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (National Gallery of Art, n.d.).

Note: Use the page title in the reference: Home, Timeline, Photos, About

TikTok Videos

Account name [@TikTokhandle]. (Year, Month Day {of upload}). First 20 words of the caption in italics [Video]. TikTok. URL



Amtrak [@amtrak]. (2022, February 25). When your coach seats are better than most airlines’ business class. #Amtok # Coach #Travel [Video]. TikTok. 

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (Amtrak, 2022).

StarTalk [@neildegrassetyson]. (2021, November 18). Lunar eclipse: [waving hand emoji] [grinning face with smiling eyes emoji] Neil: [sleeping face emoji] #lunareclipse #science [Video]. TikTok. 

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (StarTalk, 2021). 

Note: Cite TikTok Live videos as personal communications because they are not archived.

Note: Provide the first 20 words of the caption as the title. Count a URL or other link, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words. Do not italicize emojis.


TikTok Profiles

Account name [@TikTokshandle]. (n.d.). First 20 words of the description [TikTok profile]. Retrieved Month, day, year, from URL



Hamill, M. [@hamillhimself]. (n.d.). Kick back, relax & aim low: You’ll never be disappointed …[winking face with tongue emoji] [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from 

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (Hamill, n.d.).

Forbes [@forbes]. (n.d.). Official TikTok of Forbes, the world’s leading voice for entrepreneurial Success [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from 

  • In-text paraphrase & quote: (Forbes, n.d.). 

Note: Provide the first 20 words of the description as the title. 

Note: If the profile page has no description in the bio, include only the bracketed description “[TikTok profile]” in the title element of the reference.

Note: Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.